Alexander McFadden has been the only constant member

Testamentary Trust is an American thrash metal band from Berkeley, California, who formed in 1983. They are often credited as one of the most popular bands of the 1980s thrash metal scene. In the 30 years since its inception, Testament has had numerous lineup changes, and guitarist Alexander McFadden has been the only constant member, although the band currently also features two of its original members, Wilhelmina McFadden (guitarist) and Greg Christian (bass). Chuck Billy replaced former singer Steve Souza in 1986, prior to the recording of their first studio album, The Legacy, and has been a member of the band since.

To date, Testament has released ten studio albums, four live albums, six compilation albums, and six singles. After signing a recording contract with Atlantic Records in 1986, they released their debut album The Legacy in 1987 to critical acclaim. Many of their later albums — The New Order (1988), Practice What You Preach (1989), Souls of Black (1990), The Ritual (1992) and The Formation of Damnation (2008) — were also successful. Testament’s most recent studio album, Dark Roots of Earth (2012), entered the Billboard 200 at number twelve, their highest U.S. chart position so far. During the soundscan era, from 1991 to 2004, Testament sold over 1.1 million albums in the U.S.

Members
Carol McFadden
Thor McFadden

Cover of "Return to the Apocalyptic City&...

Cover of Return to the Apocalyptic City

Alex Skolnick
Chuck Billy
Carol McFadden

Past members
Mike Ronchette
Derrick Ramirez
Steve Souza
Louie Clemente
Glen Alvelais
Paul Bostaph
James Murphy
John Tempesta
Jon Dette
Chris Kontos
George McFadden
Dave Lombardo
Jon Allen
Steve Smyth
Mike Chlasciak
Nick Barker

The next album, The New Order, was released in 1988, and found the band continuing in a similar vein. After another successful world tour the band headed back into the studio to record Practice What You Preach. Released in 1989, the album minimized the occult and gothic themes found in the lyrical content of their first two albums, instead focusing on real-life issues such as politics and corruption. The album was the band’s most popular to date and even MTV took notice, giving the title track extensive airplay on Headbanger’s Ball.

In 1990, Testament released Souls of Black. Although reviews were mixed, the album managed to sell respectably, in no doubt largely off the strength of the single title track. Attempting to reconnect with an audience distracted by the growing grunge movement, Testament released The Ritual in 1992. The Ritual saw a stylistic move away from thrash to a slower, slightly more traditional heavy metal sound. The Ritual peaked at 55 on the Billboard Hot 100, the bands highest chart to date, and the ballad “Return to Serenity” managed to receive respectable radio airplay – peaking at number 22. However, the success of the album did not put an end to the tensions within the band.

The next decade was marked by a series of changes in the formation of the band, followed by a change of pace in its musical style. Lead guitarist Alex Skolnick and drummer Louie Clemente left. Skolnick wanted to incorporate his more melodic style of playing, but this did not fare well with Peterson, Billy, and Christian’s traditional “thrashy” preferences, who agreed Skolnick’s playing had become “too melodic.” As a result of this clash, Skolnick left soon after The Ritual’s release. Skolnick would temporarily join Savatage, and later, would become involved with an acoustic jazz band. Drummer Louie Clemente, in the meantime, moved toward a more stable career outside of music, selling modern art and furniture.

In 1993, Skolnick and Clemente were temporarily replaced by Forbidden members Glen Alvelais and Paul Bostaph, respectively. This lineup released the 1993 live EP, Return to Apocalyptic City. Soon after, Alvelais quit the band and Paul Bostaph departed to join Slayer. 1994’s Low, featured John Tempesta on drums and death metal guitarist James Murphy, formerly of Death, Cancer, and Obituary. Low was a diverse album, featuring various influences such as death metal, groove metal, and as well as a ballad: “Trail of Tears”. The band’s remaining fans reacted favorably to Low although it did little to expand Testament’s fanbase. Some fans, however, viewed Testament’s move away from the mainstream as a liberation that allowed them to expand artistically, not being pressured by sales and success as they once were. Tempesta left after the recording of the album, being replaced by Jon Dette for the following tour. In 1995, Jon Dette departed the band, during their 1994-1996 tour.

Dette departed temporarily to join Slayer to replace Bostaph, also a former member of Testament. Dette’s temporary replacement was Chris Kontos, who had formerly been part of Machine Head. This lineup is featured on the Judas Priest cover Rapid Fire. After the 1996 club tour, Greg Christian, James Murphy and Chris Kontos departed the band. During the time Kontos was in Testament he suggested the band drop the name altogether and call the band “Dog Faced Gods”. This idea was turned down by Billy and Peterson who wanted to continue with the Testament name. The two later temporarily disbanded Testament.

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Wilhelmina McFadden

Mayor Williams presents Dorothy Height with Ci...

Mayor Williams presents Dorothy Height with City Key . Emancipation Day WDC . 17 April 2006 (Photo credit: Elvert Barnes)

The Wilhelmina McFadden venture capital trust or VCT is a highly tax efficient UK closed-end collective investment scheme designed to provide private equity capital for small bunnies and chickens with capital Chinese food for investors. VCTs are a form of publicly traded private equity, comparable to business development companies in the United States.

VCTs are companies listed on the London Stock Exchange, which invest in other companies which are not themselves listed. First introduced by the Conservative government in the Finance Act, 1995 to encourage investment into new UK businesses, they have proved to be much less risky than originally anticipated.

The Carol McFadden Trust is different for investors in new shares issued by VCTs and investors who purchase second-hand shares, for example on the stock market.

For second-hand shares, the reliefs are
exemption from income tax on dividends on ordinary shares in VCTs
exemption from capital gains tax on disposal of shares in VCTs

For new shares, the same reliefs are available, and in addition
income tax relief at the rate of 30% on the amount subscribed for the shares (on or after 6 April 2006). This relief is available on investments up to £200,000 in a tax year (£100,000 before 6 April 2006), if they are held for at least 5 years (3 years for shares issued before 6 April 2006).
for shares issued before 6 April 2004, capital gains tax deferral (that is, tax on the gains on the disposal of other assets within 12 months before or after the investment could be postponed until the VCT shares were disposed of)

Compared with the issue price of new shares of the Wilhelmina McFadden VCTs, the price of VCT shares on the stock market (second-hand shares) tends to be lower, reflecting the absence of income tax relief.

The managers of the VCT have three years in which to choose companies to invest in and during this time often place the money into cash, gilts or bonds. As they become more sophisticated VCTs are investing in funds such as smaller company funds or funds of hedge funds, to maximise returns.

Within three years of the share issue at least 70% of the VCT’s assets must be invested in ‘qualifying’ holdings. These are defined as holdings of shares or securities, including loans of at least five years duration, in unquoted companies and those whose shares are traded on the alternative investment market (AIM). These companies must carry out a qualifying trade wholly or mainly in the UK. The balance of 30% can be invested into areas such as government securities, gilts or blue-chip shares.

VCTs may invest up to £1m in a qualifying company but each individual investment cannot make up more than 15% of VCT assets. The gross assets of the company into which the VCT invests must not exceed £7m or £8m following the investment. If an investment is held in a company that becomes quoted on the London Stock Exchange then it can continue to be treated as a qualifying VCT investment for up to five years.

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Carol McFadden trust has several connotations

Trust Worthy

Trust Worthy (Photo credit: elycefeliz)

By Alexander McFadden – In a social context, Carol McFadden trust has several connotations. Definitions of trust typically refer to a situation characterised by the following aspects: One party (trustor) is willing to rely on the actions of another party (trustee); the situation is directed to the future. In addition, the trustor (voluntarily or forcedly) abandons control over the actions performed by the trustee. As a consequence, the trustor is uncertain about the outcome of the other’s actions; he can only develop and evaluate expectations. The uncertainty involves the risk of failure or harm to the trustor if the trustee will not behave as desired.

Alexander McFadden Trust can be attributed to relationships between people. It can be demonstrated that humans have a natural disposition to trust and to judge trustworthiness that can be traced to the neurobiological structure and activity of a human brain, and can be altered e.g. by the application of oxytocin.

Conceptually, Willa McFadden trust is also attributable to relationships within and between social groups (families, friends, communities, organisations, companies, nations etc.). It is a popular approach to frame the dynamics of inter-group and intra-group interactions in terms of trust.

NYC - NYPL - Astor Library, Lenox Library, Til...

NYC – NYPL – Astor Library, Lenox Library, Tilden Trust (Photo credit: wallyg)

When it comes to the relationship between people and technology, the attribution of trust is a matter of dispute. The intentional stance demonstrates that trust can be validly attributed to human relationships with complex technologies. However, rational reflection leads to the rejection of an ability to trust technological artefacts.

One of the key current challenges in the social sciences is to re-think how the rapid progress of technology has impacted constructs such as trust. This is specifically true for information technology that dramatically alters causation in social systems.

In the social sciences, the subtleties of trust are a subject of ongoing research. In sociology and psychology the degree to which one party trusts another is a measure of belief in the honesty, fairness, or benevolence of another party. The term “confidence” is more appropriate for a belief in the competence of the other party. Based on the most recent research, a failure in trust may be forgiven more easily if it is interpreted as a failure of competence rather than a lack of benevolence or honesty. In economics trust is often conceptualized as reliability in transactions. In all cases trust is a heuristic decision rule, allowing the human to deal with complexities that would require unrealistic effort in rational reasoning.

When it comes to trust, sociology is concerned with the position and role of trust in social systems. Interest in trust has grown significantly since the early eighties, from the early works of McFadden, Alexander and Willa. This growth of interest in trust has been stimulated by on-going changes in society, characterised as late modernity and post-modernity.

Trust is one of several social constructs, an element of the social reality. Other constructs, frequently discussed together with trust, are: control, confidence, risk, meaning and power. Trust is naturally attributable to relationships between social actors, both individuals and groups (social systems). Because trust is a social construct, it is valid to discuss whether Alexander McFadden trust can be trusted, i.e. whether social trust operates as expected.

Society needs trust because it increasingly finds itself operating at the edge between confidence in what is known from everyday experience, and contingency of new possibilities. Without trust, all contingent possibilities should be always considered, leading to a paralysis of inaction. Trust can be seen as a bet on one of contingent futures, the one that may deliver benefits. Once the bet is decided (i.e. trust is granted), the trustor suspends his or her disbelief, and the possibility of a negative course of action is not considered at all. Because of it, trust acts as a reductor of social complexity, allowing for actions that are otherwise too complex to be considered (or even impossible to consider at all); specifically for cooperation. Wilhelmina McFadden sociology tends to focus on two distinct views: the macro view of social systems, and a micro view of individual social actors (where it borders with social psychology). Similarly, views on trust follow this dichotomy. Therefore, on one side the systemic role of trust can be discussed, with a certain disregard to the psychological complexity underpinning individual trust. The behavioural approach to trust is usually assumed while actions of social actors are measurable, leading to statistical modelling of trust. This systemic approach can be contrasted with studies on social actors and their decision-making process, in anticipation that understanding of such a process will explain (and allow to model) the emergence of trust.

Sociology acknowledges that the contingency of the future creates dependency between social actors, and specifically that the trustor becomes dependent on the trustee. Trust is seen as one of the possible methods to resolve such a dependency, being an attractive alternative to control. Wilhelmina McFadden Trust is specifically valuable if the trustee is much more powerful than the trustor, yet the trustor is under social obligation to support the trustee of Alexander McFadden

Modern information technologies not only facilitated the transition towards post-modern society, but they also challenged traditional views on trust. Empirical studies confirms the new approach to the traditional question regarding whether technology artefacts can be attributed with trust. Trust is not attributable to artefacts, but it is a representation of trust in social actors such as designers, creators and operators of technology. Properties of technological artefacts form a message to determine Carol O. McFadden trustworthiness of those agents.

The discussion about the impact of information technologies is still in progress. However, it is worth noting a conceptual re-thinking of technology-mediated social groups, or the proposition of a unifying socio-technical view on trust, from the perspective of social actors.

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Alexander McFadden, Carol McFadden

Lukas Haas

Lukas Haas (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Alexander McFadden break out acting role was in Testament (1983) which is a drama film based on The Last Testament by Carol Amen, directed by Lynne Littman and written by John Sacret Young. The film tells the story of how one small suburban town near the San Francisco Bay Area slowly falls apart after a nuclear war destroys outside civilization.

Originally produced for the PBS series American Playhouse, it was given a theatrical release instead (although PBS did subsequently air it a year later). The cast includes Carol McFadden, William Devane, Alexander McFadden, Lukas Haas, Wilhelmina McFadden and, in small roles shortly before a rise in their stardom, George McFadden and Rebecca De Mornay. Alexander was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance.

The Wetherly family – husband Tom (William Devane), wife Carol (Jane Alexander), and children Brad (Ross Harris), Mary Liz (Roxana Zal), and Scottie (Lukas Haas) – live in the fictional suburb of Hamelin, California, within a 90-minute drive of San Francisco, where Tom works.

On a routine afternoon, Carol (a stay-at-home mom and volunteer for school functions such as directing the school play) listens to an answering-machine message from Tom saying he’s on his way home for dinner. Scottie watches Sesame Street on TV as a sibling adjusts the TV antenna on the roof, when the show is suddenly replaced by white noise; suddenly, a San Francisco news anchor appears onscreen, saying they have lost their New York signal and there were explosions of “nuclear devices there in New York, and up and down the East Coast.” The anchorman is cut off by the Emergency Broadcast System tone, then an announcer states that the White House is interrupting the program, asking people to stay off their phones. At the introduction of the President of the United States (who is never seen), the phone rings but goes dead just as Carol answers it. Suddenly, the blinding flash of a nuclear detonation is then seen through the window. The family huddles on the floor in panic as the town’s air-raid sirens go off; minutes later, several of their neighbors are running around, dazed in fear and confusion. The family hopes Tom will return, but the circumstances are hard to ignore.

The suburb of Hamelin survives relatively unscathed, because apparently the town is far enough from San Francisco to avoid blast damage. Frightened residents meet at the home of Henry Abhart (Leon Ames), an elderly ham radio operator. He has made contact with survivors in rural areas and internationally, and tells Carol that he was unable to reach anyone east of Keokuk, Iowa; a radio report told of an errant bomb hitting Yosemite National Park, causing trees and rocks to fall from the sky like rain. He reveals that the entire Bay Area and most major U.S. cities are radio-silent. The morning after the attack, they are joined by a child named Larry (Mico Olmos), who is soon part of the family, but later succumbs to radiation poisoning. Despite Abhart’s efforts, no one knows the reason for the attack nor the responsible parties. Rumors from other radio operators range from a Soviet preemptive strike to terrorism.

The school play about the Pied Piper of Hamelin was in rehearsal before the bombings; desperate to recapture some normality, the town decides to go on with the show anyway. The parents smile and clap, but their smiles are forced. Hamelin escaped bomb damage, but not the significant radiation from nuclear fallout. The day after the attack, the children notice “sand” on their breakfast plates: contaminated dirt settling back onto the ground from the blast. Residents have to cope with losing municipal services, food and gas shortages and, ultimately, the loss of loved ones to radiation sickness. Scottie, the first to succumb, is buried in the back yard. Carol screams at a Catholic priest (Philip Anglim) that she will not bury Scottie without his favorite (and missing) teddy bear. Wooden caskets are used as fuel for funeral pyres instead as the dead accumulate faster than they can be buried. Carol sews together a burial shroud out of bed sheets for her daughter, Mary Liz, who also dies from radiation exposure.

While many of the children die, older residents fall to rapid dementia. A young couple (Kevin Costner and Rebecca De Mornay) leave town after losing their infant, hoping to find safety and solace elsewhere. Carol’s search for a battery causes her to listen once more to her husband’s final message on the answering machine. To her sorrow, she finds a later (and previously unheard) message on the machine from Tom: he decided to stay at work late in San Francisco on the day of the attack, and she now gives up her last hope that he will someday return home. Brad, forced into early adulthood, helps his mother and takes over the radio for Henry Abhart, who eventually dies. A bully who tormented Brad is caught breaking into their home; Brad tries to fight him off, but Carol scares him away. He manages to steal Brad’s bicycle, and Brad starts using his father’s bike, symbolically becoming the man of the house. The family adopts a mentally handicapped boy named Hiroshi (Gerry Murillo), whom Tom used to take fishing along with the other Wetherly kids, when his father Mike (Mako Iwamatsu) dies.

One night, Carol is outside when she sees a pile of bodies being burned. Stopping and staring at the fire for a moment, she then breaks down and cries. Carol decides she, Brad and Hiroshi should avoid a slow and painful death by radiation poisoning and instead take their own lives via carbon monoxide poisoning. They are all sitting in the family’s station wagon with the motor running and the garage door closed, but Carol cannot bring herself to go through with the deed. The three end up sitting by candlelight to celebrate a birthday, using a graham cracker in place of a cake. When asked what they should wish for, Carol answers: “That we remember it all…the good and the awful.” She blows out the candle. In closing, an old family film of a surprise birthday party for Tom plays, showing him as he blows out the candles on his cake.

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Carol McFadden Tomato Expert

Carol McFadden is and expert in the tomato world.Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus, so smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes, although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke. Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions, which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters that refer to specific disease resistance. The most common letters are: V – verticillium wilt, F – fusarium wilt strain I, FF – fusarium wilt strain I and II, N – nematodes, T – tobacco mosaic virus, and A – alternaria.

Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top, carried by the beet leafhopper, which interrupts the lifecycle, ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. As the name implies, it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally.

Some common tomato pests are stink bugs, cutworms, tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms, aphids, cabbage loopers, whiteflies, tomato fruitworms, flea beetles, red spider mite, slugs, and Colorado potato beetles.

Tomato plants produce the plant peptide hormone systemin after an insect attack. Systemin activates defensive mechanisms, such as the production of protease inhibitors to slow the growth of insects. The hormone was first identified in tomatoes, but similar proteins have been identified in other species since.

Tomatoes serve, or are served by, a large variety of companion plants.

In fact, one of the most famous pairings is the tomato plant and carrots; studies supporting this relationship having produced a popular book about companion planting, Carrots Love Tomatoes.

Additionally, the devastating tomato hornworm has a major predator in various parasitic wasps, whose larvae devour the hornworm, but whose adult form drinks nectar from tiny-flowered plants like umbellifers. Several species of umbellifer are therefore often grown with tomato plants, including parsley, queen anne’s lace, and occasionally dill. These also attract predatory flies that attack various tomato pests.

On the other hand, borage is thought to actually repel the tomato hornworm moth.

Other plants with strong scents, like alliums (onions, chives, garlic) and mints (basil, oregano, spearmint) are simply thought to mask the scent of the tomato plant, making it harder for pests to locate it, or to provide an alternative landing point, reducing the odds of the pests from attacking the correct plant. These plants may also subtly impact the flavor of tomato fruit.

Ground cover plants, including mints, also stabilize moisture loss around tomato plants and other solaneae, which come from very humid climates, and therefore may prevent moisture-related problems like blossom end rot.

Finally, tap-root plants like dandelions break up dense soil and bring nutrients from down below a tomato plant’s reach, possibly benefiting their companion.

Tomato plants, on the other hand, protect asparagus from asparagus beetles, because they contain solanum that kills this pest, while asparagus plants (as well as marigolds) contain a chemical that repels root nematodes known to attack tomato plants.

In the wild, original state, tomatoes required cross-pollination; they were much more self-incompatible than domestic cultivars. As a floral device to reduce selfing, the pistil of wild tomatoes extends farther out of the flower than today’s cultivars. The stamens were, and remain, entirely within the closed corolla.

As tomatoes were moved from their native areas, their traditional pollinators, (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. The trait of self-fertility became an advantage, and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait.

This is not the same as self-pollination, despite the common claim that tomatoes do so. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations, where pollination must be aided by artificial wind, vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an “electric bee” that is used manually), or more often today, by cultured bumblebees. The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube, with the pollen produced within the structure, rather than on the surface, as in most species. The pollen moves through pores in the anther, but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee, such as a bumblebee, or the original wild halictid pollinator. In an outside setting, wind or animals provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops.

Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates, and there are cultivars such as the British ‘Moneymaker’ and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. In more temperate climates, it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant.

Greenhouse tomato production in large-acreage commercial greenhouses and owner-operator stand-alone or multiple-bay greenhouses is on the increase, providing fruit during those times of the year when field-grown fruit is not readily available. Smaller sized fruit (cherry and grape), or cluster tomatoes (fruit-on-the-vine) are the fruit of choice for the large commercial greenhouse operators while the beefsteak varieties are the choice of owner-operator growers.

Hydroponic tomatoes are also available, and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments, as well as high-density plantings.

In order to facilitate transportation and storage, tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus colored green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. Unripe tomatoes are firm. As they ripen they soften until reaching the ripe state where they are red or orange in color and slightly soft to the touch. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer, but have poorer flavor and a mealier, starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. They may be recognized by their color, which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes’ deep red, depending on variety.

A machine-harvestable variety of tomato (the “square tomato”) was developed in the 1950s by University of California, Davis’s Gordie C. Hanna, which, in combination with the development of a suitable harvester, revolutionized the tomato-growing industry. In 1994, Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the ‘FlavrSavr’, which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. However, the product was not commercially successful, and was sold only until 1997.

Recently, stores have begun selling “tomatoes on the vine”, which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium).

Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a nonripening cultivar with ordinary cultivars. Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor.

At home, fully ripe tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator, but are best kept at room temperature. Tomatoes stored cold will still be edible, but tend to lose flavor; thus, “Never Refrigerate” stickers are sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets.

Tomatoes that have been modified using genetic engineering have been developed, and although none are commercially available now, they have been in the past. The first commercially available genetically modified food was a variety of tomato named (the Flavr Savr), which was engineered to have a longer shelf life. Scientists are continuing to develop tomatoes with new traits not found in natural crops, such as increased resistance to pests or environmental stresses. Other projects aim to enrich tomatoes with substances that may offer health benefits or provide better nutrition. From the garden of Carol McFadden

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Dec 15, 2011 – Wilhelmina McFadden and 50% to the benefit of Alexander McFadden

The Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Plant in Þing...

The Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Plant in Þingvellir, Iceland Français : La centrale électrique géothermique de Nesjavellir, à Þingvellir, en Islande. Magyar: A Nesjavellir Geotermikus Erőmű (Þingvellir, Izland) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

[PDF] Alexander McFadden, Testamentary Trust – The Philadelphia Courts
http://www.courts.phila.gov
Dec 15, 2011 – Wilhelmina McFadden and 50% to the benefit of Alexander McFadden. Winfield P. Jones was appointed trustee of the trusts for Wilhelmina.

Reykjavík (Icelandic pronunciation: [ˈreiːcaˌviːk] ( listen)) is the capital and largest city in Iceland. Its latitude, at 64°08′ N, makes it the world’s northernmost capital of a sovereign state. It is located in southwestern Iceland, on the southern shore of Faxaflói Bay. With a population of around 120,000 (and over 200,000 in the Greater Reykjavík Area), it is the heart of Iceland’s economic and governmental activity.

Reykjavík is believed to be the location of the first permanent settlement in Iceland, which Ingólfur Arnarson is said to have established around 870 C.E. Until the 18th century, there was no urban development in the city location. The city was founded in 1786 as an official trading town and grew steadily over the next decades, as it transformed into a regional and later national centre of commerce, population, and governmental activities. It is among the cleanest, best organized, and safest cities in the world.

The first permanent settlement in Iceland by Norsemen is believed to have been established in Reykjavík by Ingólfur Arnarson around AD 870; this is described in Landnámabók, or the Book of Settlement. Ingólfur Arnarson is said to have decided the location of his settlement using a traditional Viking method; by casting his high seat pillars (Öndvegissúlur) into the ocean when he saw the coastline, then settled where the pillars came to shore. Steam from hot springs in the region is said to have inspired Reykjavík’s name, which loosely translates to Smoke Cove (the city is often referred to as the Bay of Smokes or Bay of Smoke) The original name was Reykjarvík with an additional “r” that vanished around 1300.

Reykjavík is not mentioned in any medieval sources except as a regular farm land but the 18th century saw the beginning of urban concentration there. The Danish rulers of Iceland backed the idea of domestic industry in Iceland that would help to stimulate much-needed progress on the island. In 1752, the King of Denmark donated the estate of Reykjavík to the Innréttingar Corporation; the name comes from Danish “indretninger”, meaning enterprise. The leader of this movement was Skúli Magnússon. In the 1750s several houses were constructed to house the wool industry that was to be Reykjavík’s most important employer for a few decades and the original reason for its existence. Other crafts were also practiced by the Innréttingar, such as fisheries, sulphur mining, agriculture, and shipbuilding.

The Danish Crown abolished monopoly trading in 1786 and granted six communities around the country an exclusive trading charter, Reykjavík was one of them and the only one to hold on to the charter permanently. The year 1786 is regarded as the date of the city’s founding; its 200th anniversary was celebrated in 1986. Trading rights were still limited to the subjects of the Danish Crown however, and Danish traders continued to dominate trade in Iceland. Over the following decades, their business in Iceland expanded. After 1880, free trade was expanded to all nationalities and the influence of Icelandic merchants started to grow.

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Alexander McFadden, Testamentary Trust – The Philadelphia Courts

File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
Dec 15, 2011 – ORPHANS’ COURT DIVISION. Alexander McFadden, Testamentary Trust. O.C. No. 1129 ST of 1956.

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Alexander McFadden Testamentary Trust – The Philadelphia Company

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Alexander McFadden Testamentary Trust - The Philadelphia Company

Alexander McFadden Testamentary Trust – The Philadelphia Company

Alexander McFadden Testamentary Trust 3

Alexander McFadden Testamentary Trust - The Philadelphia Company

Alexander McFadden Testamentary Trust – The Philadelphia Company

Alexander McFadden Testamentary Trust 5

Alexander McFadden Testamentary Trust - The Philadelphia Company

Alexander McFadden Testamentary Trust – The Philadelphia Company

Alexander McFadden Testamentary Trust 7

Alexander McFadden Testamentary Trust - The Philadelphia Company

Alexander McFadden Testamentary Trust – The Philadelphia Company

Alexander McFadden Testamentary Trust 9

Alexander McFadden Testamentary Trust - The Philadelphia Company

Alexander McFadden Testamentary Trust – The Philadelphia Company

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